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MINNESOTA VIKINGS BETTING LINE

Tags: ultras, casuals, ultras casuals, ultra liberi, supporters, acab, , mentalita ultras, football, soccer, calcio, ultras football. Tags: bfc dynamo, dynamo berlin, burgundy white, bfc, hooligans, ultras, soccer, berlin football, bfc dynamo pennant. Tags: egypt, al ahly, ultras al ahly, al ahly casuals, , al ahly, al ahly hooligans, al ahly fans, against modern football, love egypt, ultras ahlawy, ultras devils, ahlawy.

Tags: arsenal, afc, arsenal fc, soccer, football, casuals, ultras, amf, gooners, gunners, end, highbury. Tags: dinamo, croatia, ultras dinamo, dinamo casuals, , dinamo, hooligans, dinamo fans, against modern football, dinamo hooligans, croatia hooligans, ultra dinamo, visit zagreb, bad blue boys, bbb, dinamo zagreb, hrvatska. Tags: israel, ultras hapoel tel aviv, hapoel tel aviv casuals, , hapoel tel aviv, hapoel tel aviv hooligans, hapoel tel aviv fans, against modern football, hapoel tel aviv, tel aviv, ultras tel aviv, hooligans tel aviv, ultras hapoel, hapoel, hapoel hooligans.

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Till the end of my life, Ireland, Finn Harps F. Lightweight Hoodie By OurLegendary. Tags: casual, ultras, casual ultras, football, casuals, hooligan, terrace, cp company, dresser, clobber, acab, , tifo, no pyro no party, ultras football, against modern football, ultras casuals, weekend offnders, top, mewells old boys football team, cp, company, adidas, fils, case, stone, island, dressers, football ultras, fifa m world cup, fussball, fifa world cup.

Shop by Category. Tank Tops. Mini Skirts. Tags: ac milan, acm, milan, milano, rossoneri, red black, curva sud milano, csm, casual, player, football, soccer, legend, san siro, italia, italy, lega calcio, ultras liberi, brigate rossoneri, fossa dei leoni, ultras, ultras casual, we are ac milan. Tags: hala madrid, madrid, real madrid, madridista, rmfc, ronaldo, cr7, santiago bernabeu, espana, spain, atletico, sergio ramos, cassilas, legends, real madrid selling, real madrid trending, football, soccer, la liga, futbol, fans, ultras.

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Tags: against, modern, football, torcida, hooligans, ultras, ultra, forza, curva, sud, nord, terrace, stand, casuals, away, days, special, fans, supporters, lads. Tags: newcastle, newacastle united, newcastle football, nufc, utd, toon army, the magpies, st james park, alan shearer, football, soccer, ultras, league of legends, english, england, uk, united kingdom, epl, efl, retrofootball. Tags: bbb, bad blue boys, zagreb, zagabria, purgeri, , dinamo, dinamo zagreb, blue, white, croatia, croatian, croat, hrvatska, hooligan, hooligans, ultra, ultras, football, soccer, europe, group, groups, fan, fans, supporters, casual.

Tags: stuttgart, ultras stuttgart, cannstatter kurve, , stuttgart hooligans, stuttgart, stuttgart, recent stuttgart. Tags: greece, love olympiacos, olympiacos football, olympiacos goal, olympiacos ultras, olympiacos hooligans, olympiacos fans, olympiacos legend, olympiacos casulas, go olympiacos, olympiacos piraeus, olympiacos, piraeus. Tags: ac milan, acm, milan, milano, rossoneri, red black, curva sud milano, csm, casual, player, football, soccer, legend, san siro, italia, italy, lega calcio, ultras liberi, brigate rossoneri, fossa dei leoni, ultras, ultras casual, we are ac milan, trio grenoli gunnar gren, gunnar nordahl, dan nils liedholm, ac milan legend.

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Tags: football, barnsley, kes, northern, casuals, hooligan, hooligans, ultras, awayday, awaydays, soccer, retro, premier league, amf, dressers, supporter, england, clobber, lads, vintage, terraces, sport, footie, subculture. Tags: against modern football, detroit city fc, celtic fc, st pauli, crystal palace, ultras, amf, fc st pauli, real oviedo, dulwich hamlet fc, portland timbers, joy division, fc united, fuck var, fifa, casuals, colfc, afc wimbledon, new york cosmos.

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Tags: ajax, ajax amsterdam, afc ajax, ajax fc, amsterdam football club, amsterdam football club ajax, amsterdam arena, amsterdam, ultras ajax, afc, football, nederland, f side, club, fans ajax, fans, johan, afca, , lucky, godenzonen, ajax art, ajax football team squad, ajax ilustration, ajax wallpaper, alloanz stadium, amiga, amsterdam city, amsterdamsche, amsterdamsche football club ajax, champion, champion, netherlands, soccer, war rocket ajax, champions league, holland, fc, flash, flash gordon, funny, eredivisi, europa.

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Tags: ultras, napoli, curva a, calcio, tifosi, tifo, hooligan, football, soccer, fan. Tags: ac milan, acm, milan, milano, rossoneri, red black, curva sud milano, csm, casual, player, football, soccer, legend, san siro, italia, italy, lega calcio, ultras liberi, brigate rossoneri, fossa dei leoni, ultras, ultras casual, fino alla morte. Tags: ireland, ultras finn harps, finn harps casuals, , finn harps, hooligans, finn harps fans, against modern football, finn harps hooligans, ireland hooligans, ultra finn harps, visit ballybofey, fc finn harps, finn harps f c, ballybofey, harps, the harps.

Till the end of my life, Ireland, Finn Harps F. Lightweight Hoodie By OurLegendary. Tags: casual, ultras, casual ultras, football, casuals, hooligan, terrace, cp company, dresser, clobber, acab, , tifo, no pyro no party, ultras football, against modern football, ultras casuals, weekend offnders, top, mewells old boys football team, cp, company, adidas, fils, case, stone, island, dressers, football ultras, fifa m world cup, fussball, fifa world cup.

Shop by Category. Tank Tops. Mini Skirts. Tags: ac milan, acm, milan, milano, rossoneri, red black, curva sud milano, csm, casual, player, football, soccer, legend, san siro, italia, italy, lega calcio, ultras liberi, brigate rossoneri, fossa dei leoni, ultras, ultras casual, we are ac milan. Tags: hala madrid, madrid, real madrid, madridista, rmfc, ronaldo, cr7, santiago bernabeu, espana, spain, atletico, sergio ramos, cassilas, legends, real madrid selling, real madrid trending, football, soccer, la liga, futbol, fans, ultras.

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Tags: bbb, bad blue boys, zagreb, zagabria, purgeri, , dinamo, dinamo zagreb, blue, white, croatia, croatian, croat, hrvatska, hooligan, hooligans, ultra, ultras, football, soccer, europe, group, groups, fan, fans, supporters, casual. Tags: stuttgart, ultras stuttgart, cannstatter kurve, , stuttgart hooligans, stuttgart, stuttgart, recent stuttgart.

Tags: greece, love olympiacos, olympiacos football, olympiacos goal, olympiacos ultras, olympiacos hooligans, olympiacos fans, olympiacos legend, olympiacos casulas, go olympiacos, olympiacos piraeus, olympiacos, piraeus. Tags: ac milan, acm, milan, milano, rossoneri, red black, curva sud milano, csm, casual, player, football, soccer, legend, san siro, italia, italy, lega calcio, ultras liberi, brigate rossoneri, fossa dei leoni, ultras, ultras casual, we are ac milan, trio grenoli gunnar gren, gunnar nordahl, dan nils liedholm, ac milan legend.

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Tags: sweden, ultras aik, aik casuals, hooligans, aik fans, against modern football, aik hooligans, sweden hooligans, ultra aik, visit stockholm, love aik, stockholm, sverige, aik, aik stockholm, ultras nord, sol invictus, black army stockholm, firman boys. Tags: galatasaray, turkey, ultras galatasaray, galatasaray casuals, , galatasaray, hooligans, galatasaray fans, against modern football, galatasaray hooligans, turkey hooligans, ultra galatasaray, visit istanbul, fc galatasaray, gala, ultraslan.

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Tags: against modern football, detroit city fc, celtic fc, st pauli, crystal palace, ultras, amf, fc st pauli, real oviedo, dulwich hamlet fc, portland timbers, joy division, fc united, fuck var, fifa, casuals, colfc, afc wimbledon, new york cosmos. Tags: estonia, ultras flora, flora casuals, , flora, hooligans, flora fans, against modern football, flora hooligans, estonia hooligans, ultra flora, visit tallinn, fc flora, flora tallinn, tallinn, triibulised, streakeds, kaktused, cactus.

Tags: ireland, ultras ucd dublin, ucd dublin casuals, , ucd dublin, hooligans, ucd dublin fans, against modern football, ucd dublin hooligans, ireland hooligans, ultra ucd dublin, visit dublin, fc ucd dublin, dublin, ucd, the students, college. Tags: france, ultras lyon, lyon casuals, hooligans, lyon fans, against modern football, lyon hooligans, france hooligans, ultra lyon, visit lyon, love lyon, lyon, olympique de lyon, bad gones, virage sud lyon, olympique lyonnais, lyonnais.

Tags: greece, ultras paok solun, paok solun casuals, , paok solun, paok solun hooligans, paok solun fans, against modern football, gate 4, paok solun, thessaloniki, saloniki, solun, paokara, paok, ultras paok, paok hooligans, paok fc, partizan, pfc, grobari, beograd, paok partizan, koudas, sarafis, salpingidis.

Tags: greece, ultras aris, aris casuals, , aris, aris solun hooligans, aris solun fans, against modern football, super 3, aris solun, saloniki aris, aris hooligans, aris saloniki, aris thessaloniki, kouis, alexiades, pallas, dinos kouis. Tags: ajax, ajax amsterdam, afc ajax, ajax fc, amsterdam football club, amsterdam football club ajax, amsterdam arena, amsterdam, ultras ajax, afc, football, nederland, f side, club, fans ajax, fans, johan, afca, , lucky, godenzonen, ajax art, ajax football team squad, ajax ilustration, ajax wallpaper, alloanz stadium, amiga, amsterdam city, amsterdamsche, amsterdamsche football club ajax, champion, champion, netherlands, soccer, war rocket ajax, champions league, holland, fc, flash, flash gordon, funny, eredivisi, europa.

Tags: barra brava oriente petrolero, fans, love oriente petrolero, my santa cruz, ultras, oriente petrolero hools, santa cruz, footbal, love bolivia, oriente petrolero hooligans, bolivia, football oriente petrolero, santa cruz bolivia, hooligans, only oriente petrolero, santa cruz hooligans.

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These arethe preconditions that lead, inevitably, to scandal. This increase in scrutiny is accounted for by anumber of factors. First, new communication formsallow for the capture and reporting of events thatwould previously have remained unknown. Theprofusion of camera and video phones, instantmessaging and social networking services such asFacebook and Twitter all contribute to this greaterscrutiny.

NRLplayer Brett Seymour was suspended for two matchesbecause mobile phone footage appeared of himwandering drunkenly outside a nightclub andcollapsing Walter, McCleneghan in a study of newspaper sports writers notes that theyno longer write descriptions of sporting deeds, butwrite about the controversy attached to sportingendeavour. Fourth,the emergent immediacy of new information-sharingtechnologies fosters immediate reporting.

Finally, with ashift from paid, accredited sources relaying events to asituation where unpaid, blogging and tweetingjournalists and non-journalists are reporting, thecontrol that administrators once had is eroding. Sports stars are increasingly scrutinised and it has becomemuch harder to hide transgressions; increasingly,anything that is captured will also be reported. The construction of sports women and men as rolemodels,heroes and brand icons inevitably leads toclose scrutiny of their behaviour.

Of course the clever re-appropriation ofthese ideas within an advert demonstrates that he isindeed a powerful brand model. As Smith and Hattery , p. The rolemodelconcept, which embodies close scrutiny of theathlete, allows the fan and viewer to gaze intimately atthe actions of the sports star.

This is in turn fed by theshift in media representations and by the actions ofstars themselves. High-profile competitive sports such as the footballcodes offer varied yet extreme rewards with little timecommitment to young men at the peak of poor socialbehaviour. The effectof a total institution is to remove individual agencyfrom the actor and leave them beholden to socialprocesses of control.

Athletes within this system havetheir behaviour governed by group norms embeddedwithin the social structure around them. As Anderson , p. Davis , p. While no excuse forindividual behaviour, the social circumstance of sportcreates and fosters an environment where scandalousactivity appears to be inevitable. Case study: Australian NRLThe purpose of this case study is to take a high-profilesport that has had a series of scandals and assesssome of the responses from the players, clubs,administration, sponsors and government.

This forayinto scandal management illustrates several strategies,including denial, apology and education programmes. The NRL also has a special relationship with alcoholsponsors by virtue of government advertisingregulations. Thecompetition traces its lineage back to , despiteseveral challenges from other codes and breakaway ortakeover attempts, including the Superleaguecontroversy of the late s Connor, These value systems permeate club, player and fancultures to such an extent that particular behaviourshave become normalised Anderson, and haveonly come under sustained criticism in the pastdecade as the rising toll of indiscretions andincidences of obnoxious behaviour has been playedout in an increasingly hostile media.

The shift in mediarepresentations of player behaviour is a key aspect ofthis article. We do not suggest that the behaviours ofplayers are in any way novel; indeed, what evidencethere is suggests that poor player behaviour hasalways been part of the sport Heads, What isnovel is the change in media and, hence fan, sponsor,commentator and government scrutiny.

It is beyond the scope of this article to catalogue thenumber, type and reporting of all the scandals thathave embroiled the NRL in the past decade. It is sufficient for ourargument to establish that scandal is ubiquitous. To date, the NRL response has been to slowlyincrease the penalties it applies to both individualsand clubs. These include fines for clubs and fines,suspensions or cancellation of contracts for players.

Sponsors have repeatedly asked the NRL and itsclubs to address the poor image of the game. These containment strategies are merely fingers in arapidly collapsing dyke. The media, government andfans have become increasingly unsatisfied by thisresponse and the lack of effect it appears to have hadon player behaviour. For example, the continuingincidences of sexual assault allegations againstfootballers in Australia has led to the formation of fanadvocacy groups at grassroots level, including Footballfans against sexual assault Dimitrov, In a series of sexual misconduct cases led the NRL torespond with a new player education strategydesigned to inform players how they should behavearound women.

The inevitability of scandalacademic, Professor Catharine Lumby, prominent forher comments in the media on sex and women, toinvestigate the culture of the league and suggest waysto make players more aware of issues around sex andbehaviour. An education strategy was part of thisinitiative but has been heavily criticised. As Dann , p. Do weassume the average sportsman needs to be briefed onthe law related to murder, bank robbery or road safety?

No, but we assume people who mostly treat theirmothers, sisters, aunties or wives with respect requireregular briefings on how to deal with women. The real lesson is that as a media andsponsor management strategy, the education responseworks well in the short term but offers increased riskof scrutiny and adverse commentary in the mediumterm if the results are not clear. This particularscandal was also quite specific — involving the loss ofcompetition points for a team because of rulesbreaches — but the hydra-like reappearance of scandalpoints to the need for the NRL and like organisationsto embrace alternate risk management and sponsorengagement strategies to both change cultural valuesand embrace the inevitability of scandal.

Wilson et al , pp. Given the contributions already available in theliterature on scandal management, this paper focuseson several lessons that are less explored. What is not often acknowledged in the debatesaround sponsorship and scandal is that there are ahost of reasons for some sponsors to stay involved in aparticular relationship, even in the face of scandal andperhaps to even build a sponsorship strategy thataccepts and uses controversy.

Further, some sponsorsalso derive secondary benefits from a particularassociation that goes beyond traditional naming rights. We wish to explore two reasons for the continuedinvolvement of sponsors: regulation or rule avoidance,and branding.

This is the case in Australia in relation toalcohol sponsorship and advertising. However, aclause permits alcohol advertising during live sportbroadcasts at weekends and on public holidays at anytime clause 6. Through sponsorship of sport,alcohol advertisers thus have a unique opportunity topush their products to audiences to which theynormally have limited access.

When this is combinedwith sponsorship of sporting teams, the impact isenhanced by matching advertisements with the onfieldsports, creating a synergistic marketing effect. Alcohol companies are quick to claim that they are nottargeting young people with this strategy, and theypoint to a voluntary industry code that prohibits this the Alcohol Beverages Advertising Code, AdvertisingFederation of Australia, This has beenquestioned repeatedly in academic and popularliterature as well as by governments King et al, The secondary benefit associated with thespecial rules around sports advertising allows asponsor to overlook scandal to retain this advantage.

The lesson here is that alcohol companies need toeffectively engage lobbying strategies and maintain atleast a semblance of positive coverage in the widermedia regarding their sponsorship and advertisingactivities or risk losing this option. Combining the sport and sporting star with theproduct is the traditional marketing strategy of sportssponsorship.

Thishas progressed to such a point in the NRL thatrepeated calls for a drinking ban on players have beenmade. It is notunheard of in the Australian sporting context to havealcohol banned. However, alcohol companieswere never a major sponsor of Australian swimming. BrandingIn some ways it is beneficial to companies to beassociated with certain boundary-pushing behavioursthat also support core product messages andmeanings. This appears to be the re-brandingstrategy that Carlton and United Breweries isemploying with their VB beer product.

For an analysis of the complex messages sports starsoffer, see Burton et al, The popular confectioneryMinties ran a similar message with their Moments likethese campaign — highlighting the need for a sweetreprieve from troublesome events. There is certainlyscope for savvy marketing strategies to use theinevitability of scandal to push a brand message. ConclusionSport and sports people are under increasing scrutinyas a result of the Faustian bargain that has been madebetween sports administrators and owners wantingmore media coverage and exposure and the push fornews reporting to become sensationalised.

Thisprocess of commercialisation, coupled with intensescrutiny, has resulted in scandalous behaviour beingincreasingly reported. The inevitability of scandalmarketers must now consider scandal to be inevitableand manage their relationships accordingly. Theexperience of the Australian NRL competition isillustrative of how continuing scandals can threatenthe viability of sports when incorrectly managed. However, some sports can take advantage ofregulatory frameworks that encourage certainmarketing agreements.

This is the case in Australiawith television advertising and alcohol. Finally, giventhat scandal is inevitable, more consideration shouldbe given to the strategy of embracement. Takingadvantage of scandal to frame the messages around aproduct, image and brand means that sponsors arenot under threat from scandal but actually takeadvantage of it.

This particular strategy needs to befield-tested with a brand whose marketers and ownersare brave enough. He hasresearched and written extensively on sport, includingon doping in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. His work on how emotion guides social actionincludes The Sociology of Loyalty Springer, His research interestsinclude the social science and management ofperformance-enhancing technology in sport, with afocus on drug use in sport.

Anderson, E. Benoit, W. Bruce, T. Burton, R. Connor, J. Charbonneau, J. Dann, S. Davis, G. Dimitrov, R. New York: Double Day Anchor. Giulianotti, R. Cambridge:Polity Press. Harvey, N. Heads, I. Honeysett, S. Horne, J. New York:Palgrave. Hughson, J. Oxon: Routledge. King, E. Kogoy, P. Lavack, A. Lazarus, G. Maters, R. McCarthy, J. McCleneghan, J. NRL media release, 25 February. Proszenko, A. Ritchie, D. Roach, A. Frenchs Forest: Pearson. Schacht, S. Silverman, J. Shuart, J. Smith, E. Wall, J.

Retrieved from:www. Walter, B. Westberg, K. Whannel, G. Wilson, B. A critical mass of corruption: why some footballleagues have more match-fixing than othersKeywordsfootballcorruptionorganised crimegamblingmatch-fixingrelative exploitationDeclan HillDepartment of Sociology, University of OxfordOxford, Englanddeclan.

Based on more than interviews withplayers, referees, sports officials and law enforcementofficers, the gambling industry and corrupters, threefactors presented when high levels of match-fixing wereobserved: strong illegal gambling networks, high levelsof relative exploitation of players, and perceived corruptofficials. Leagues collapsed if the public became awareof high-level corruption and an alternative marketcompetitor was introduced.

Itexamines two questions: Why do some leagues havemore match-fixing than other leagues? The subject of corruption in sport and its link tosponsorship has long been ignored. It should not be. Some of the football leagues that I examine in thispaper have lost hundreds of millions of dollars insponsorship money because of corruption.

The data for this paper were gathered in two ways:qualitative, in interviews with more than individuals; and quantitative, through construction of aseries of databases of fixed and non-fixed matches,corrupt and non-corrupt players, in order to determinegeneral trends. Ineffect, players are paid badly to do their jobs well, butthere is an alternative market that is willing to paythem very well, to do their jobs badly. The concept of an alternative market is important inthe question of why some leagues collapse.

It is notthat they are highly corrupt: it is that the public knowsthe league is highly corrupt and there is an alternative,non-corrupt sports league that can draw fans andsponsors away from the highly corrupt league. Inthe 85th minute of the game against the provincialteam Shenyang Jinde, he ordered his team to walk offthe pitch.

He then stood outside the dressing roomdoor and announced that his team was not onlyrefusing to take part in the rest of the match, but alsorefusing to take part in any more matches in theChinese Super League CSL. Beijing Hyundai,sponsored by the Korean car company, was one of therichest teams in the league, and several other teamsfollowed its lead, pulling out of the league and causingthe CSL to effectively collapse Blatter, ;China.

Yang Zuwu and the other protesters were infuriatedbecause in less than five months the league hadproven to be rife with corruption and match-fixing SO10; Watts, ; Gidney, The bribing ofreferees, players and teams had, they claimed,become so widespread and so blatant, that it wasimpossible to play honestly in the league. The collapse of the CSL follows a trend acrosssouth-east Asia. The effect of corruption on sponsorship has beenignored in sport.

Once credibility isgone, the sponsors pull out. The collapse of the CSLand other Asian football leagues because of corruptionamong the players and referees was accompanied bya loss in corporate sponsorship of hundreds of millionsof dollars SO , 9, It has taken Chinesefootball years to recover, and many of the corruptedleagues have never been able to regain either the fansupport or sufficient sponsorship money.

I argue throughout the paper that widespread matchcorruption is not a cultural phenomenon: Chinese,Singaporeans and Asians in general are no morewilling to take bribes for ethnic or cultural reasonsthan any other group. I find that the data indicatesthat when similar conditions exist in a football leaguein a different country with a different culturalbackground — England in the s, players alsoengaged in match-fixing.

I argue that it is theintroduction of new market alternatives, combinedwith situations of relative deprivation and expectationsof corruption, that lead to high levels of corruption andthe eventual collapse of the leagues. MethodologyMuch of the primary research for this paper wasconducted in Asia, particularly Malaysia andSingapore, because both countries have had a longhistory of match-fixing.

The latest example of footballfixing began in the late s. Corruption in football Seneviratne , p. The league enjoyedconsiderable financial support for infrastructure fromboth the Malaysian and the Singaporean governments. The two federal governments helped build modernstadia Williams, , p.

Dunhill Tobacco andother private companies also sponsored the league Seneviratne , p. A well endorsed televisioncontract ensured that the M-league was broadcastnationally with a potential viewing audience in themillions Mony, Teams were allowed to importforeign stars to improve the quality of the play. Theleague became so popular that some matchesattracted more than 50, people to the stadium Seneviratne, In Malaysian journalists wrote a series ofnewspapers articles alleging that the league was hometo widespread match-fixing.

Purportedly the fixes werearranged by a series of Singapore-based corrupters Fernandez ; LE5. Fans began to complainloudly during the games that the results were Kelungor fixed SO In the summer of a police investigationbegan. It is a source of some controversy as to whichcountry launched the official investigation. Police forces in bothcountries arrested more than players, coachesand officials from the league.

Thecontroversy between the two countries became sogreat that the FAM expelled the Singaporeans from theleague, which effectively collapsed in Therewere even wider diplomatic problems, with theSingaporean and Malaysian governments exchangingangry words about the collapse of the league SO 1. Much of the data were collected in Malaysia andSingapore, through a combination of qualitative andquantitative methods.

The qualitative work relies, inpart, on interviews with players, referees, sportsofficials and corrupters who have experience in fixingmatches. Most of the interview subjects reported thatthe topic of match-fixing in football was immenselycontroversial and that they feared recriminations fromeither the corrupters or the authorities if they spokeout. Inparticular, people who are still serving in the gameemphasised that if they were to be quoted, eitherpublicly or in such a way as to allow people to guesstheir identity, they would lose their job or possibly facemore severe consequences.

I constructed theFMDB by finding in newspaper articles, interviews orfrom court and police files examples of fixed matches. The database, currently comprises fixed matchesin 60 different countries and 55 different leagues orcup games.

The FMDB consists of39 variables. There were a number of important challenges toovercome in the construction of the FMDB. So it was necessary to be clear about how certain itwas that the game had actually been fixed. The first, and highest, degree of certainty was ifthe game had been declared fixed in court or somelegal proceedings. The next degree was if a footballassociation hearing had declared it fixed.

The thirdwas if a number of people who had activelyparticipated in the fix confessed to the fix. The fourthwas if there had been a law case or policeinvestigation that had been suspended or notcontinued. The fifth was if an inside participant in thegame, say the other team or an honest referee, hadalleged that other parties were fixing. The final level,with least certainty, consisted of games that werealleged to have been fixed by a source that I did notconsider particularly reliable.

Because of the lack of reliability of the fixes in thebottom three levels of this variable, I developed asecond database, the Fixed-Match Database 2 FMDB-2 , which included only the games that had adegree of certainty of level 3 and above. Any game forwhich these reports could not be found was excludedfrom the database 88 games in all , so there are games in the FMDB-2 database. The second challenge was to ensure that there wasa control group built into the database. Becausefootball games vary so greatly in terms of culture, styleand era there are fewer goals scored in the Spanishleague than in the Italian league and, generally, fewergoals scored in contemporary games than in matches50 years ago , the games in this database were thenmatched with games from a control group ofpurportedly honestly played games of an equivalentculture, playing style and era.

To match these games,I randomly selected 12 games from the presumedhonest Norwegian league of the same year. I did thisfor the games, and found match reports — bothstatistical and anecdotal — for these games. FMDB-2consists of fixed matches and controlmatches. This control group consists of fiveEuropean leagues — England, Scotland, France,Germany and Holland — from the season.

Icontrasted the variables from this second control groupwith those in the other groups to ensure that thestatistical patterns did actually represent a significanttrend in the data. There are two important limitations to the database. First, I am in no way implying that all the fixes thatmay have occurred in a league are represented in thedatabase. Because match-fixing is a covert activity, itis not always apparent when it has occurred. Second,because not all corrupt activity is shown, I cannotmake comparisons on the rates of match-fixingbetween various leagues.

A number of academics, using mostly quantitativemethods, have explored match corruption in sport. Most famously Levitt and Duggan examinedcollusion in Sumo wrestling, but there have also beenpapers by Taylor and Trogdon , Wolfer and Nye and Moul Two other economists, IanPreston and Stefan Szymanski, used police reports towrite on match-fixing in cricket , and Boeri andSevergnini wrote specifically on match-fixing infootball in their exploration of the importance of mediaperception in the Italian Calciopoli scandal.

Althoughthe work of some of these commentators is notspecifically cited in this paper, all of their work washelpful in the framing of the research. Why some leagues and not others? The answer to this question is not simply ageneralised cultural and societal acceptance ofcorruption. As countries declined in their levels ofperceived honesty and transparency, so their footballleagues would become more corrupt.

However, thecase study of Singapore and Malaysia shows that amore detailed analysis is needed. These two countries are geographically contiguousbut their cultures are vastly different. Malaysia is anIslamic democracy, Singapore an almost aggressivelyagnostic state. The per capita GDP of Singapore isapproximately three times higher than its neighbour. Malaysia has a series of royal families and a crownedmonarchy.

Singapore has no titled aristocracy and itshead of state is a president. Malaysia, on theother hand, is ranked 44th in the anti-corruptionleague, roughly equivalent to Italy and belowBotswana and Jordan CPI However, the twocountries do share a similarity: their shared footballleague collapsed due to match-fixing and both leaguesare still generally assumed to be full of corruption SO8; SO1.

What then are the common features ofleagues that allow corruption to flourish? For a precise response to this question, examinationof another football league is useful. This league usedto have high levels of fixed matches but now there arecomparatively few. The country also has a relativelyhigh standing in perceived honesty: England.

In the popular literature, there are few books onfootball that mention match-fixing. In general, thegame is portrayed as a noble pastime, free from thepettiness and spite of everyday life. This idealisation isparticularly true of books on English football in thes and 50s. He writes that football of that time was a halcyonsport played by gentlemen like Stanley Matthews, whoenjoyed a tough, clean game, but now the game isplayed by teams of cheating thugs.

The primary sources indicate that this view, at leastof the English game in the s, is simply a myth. Eachplayed in the English first and second divisions; andeach would write of the match-fixing that occurred. Allwould claim that match-fixing was relatively common. Clough and Gregg also wrote of the gambling matchfixingthat was going on in their own prominent firstdivision clubs.

Their testimonies are not exceptions. Ian St. John, another Scottish international, wrote ofhis own match-fixing in the Scottish League St. John,, p. In those daysmatch-fixing was very obvious. It was easy to calla manager to arrange a match. In those days itwas very obvious P3. But perhaps the most convincing of thesources is one of the highest league officials of thetime, the Secretary of the English Football League,Alan Hardaker, who wrote:There are many men in football today, amongthem respected and celebrated managers, whohave good reason to remember the great briberyscandals of the early s.

They were deeplyinvolved in the mess but escaped because theLaw and the League could not get the evidence tonail them. Corruption was rife in the league[emphasis added]. I received calls from directors,managers, players, bookmakers and the Pools. Thetrouble, moreover, did not stop at coupon swindles[gambling fixes]. There were club-to-clubpayments being made to swing matches affectingpromotion and relegation.

I did not believe all Iheard. Much of it I guessed to be rumour orhearsay, but even if only a portion of theinformation fed to me were true, it still meant thatthere was a significant problem Hardaker, It is difficult to quantify how many games were fixedin England and whether they were greater or lesser innumber than in present-day Malaysia and Singapore.

However, the general trends were roughly comparableto some of the contemporary Asian leagues: therewere gambling networks fixing matches throughout theseason; at the end of the season, many of thedivisional championship and relegation competitionswere affected by match-fixing, and the corrupters, bothgambling and team officials, were forming linksbetween themselves to maximise profits.

Currently,English football is assumed to have far less matchfixing. What has changed? Illegal gamblingThe first condition that leads to widespread matchcorruptionis the presence of illegal gamblingnetworks. SO11 grew up in s England:I remember in England in the 50s there wereillegal bookies on every street.

The only way youcould make a bet legally if you lived inBirmingham was to go to the Doncaster Races. So,every street had their own gambling ring SO Corruption in footballlaws Vamplew, ; Inglis, , pp. Betting in person in a shop, now a societal norm inthe UK, was completely outlawed until Preston and Szymanski show that thepresence of illegal gambling networks is a strongcontributory factor to match-fixing.

Their theory is thatif gambling is illegal, than the people who run it willbe criminals. Professional criminals will be more likelyto turn to match-fixing than will established legitimatecompanies. This is also the view of the SingaporeFootball Association which, after the collapse of itsfootball league, campaigned for the establishment of agovernment-run sports gambling industry SO11;Moore, ; Cor1; SO8.

According to a number ofinterview subjects, the fact that match-fixing continuesin the Singaporean football leagues is an indicationthat the government-run company has been unable tocompete successfully with the illegal gamblingindustry SO8; Cor2. In the other Asian countrieswhere their football leagues collapsed — China,Malaysia, Vietnam etc — sports gambling is vastlypopular but officially illegal.

It is this dynamic whichgives both organised crime and match-fixing much ofits impetus. This is similar to the situation in theprohibition-era United States, when alcoholconsumption — a vastly popular pastime — wasdeclared illegal, thereby fuelling a massive rise inAmerican organised crime Lupsha, Relative deprivationIf signalled the beginning of widespread,publicly available, legal gambling in England, it wasalso the year of a significant legal controversy inprofessional English football, the latent function ofwhich Merton , pp.

George Eastham, a forwardplaying for Newcastle United, wanted to play for theLondon-based team Arsenal. As was then the industrynorm, his club refused to allow him to transfer. Hetook them to court and won. Not to over-simplify a long and complexsocio-economic battle that lasted from the Easthamdecision, through a threatened large-scale labouraction by the players, right up to the Bosman case inBelgium in the s, but essentially, before ,English football players had very few employmentrights.

The clubs controlled whether they played ornot. If players were injured the clubs frequently paidthem no compensation or benefits; even when acontract ended, a player was prevented from signingfor another club unless they had the permission oftheir first club; and all players — regardless ofexperience or playing ability — had a maximum wagesalary cap that determined how much they were paid.

Some of the players responded to these conditions byfixing matches. John, a footballer in the sScottish First Division whose conditions were roughlyequivalent to the English league of the time , sums upthese motivations in his description of his arranging afixed game:The temptation for lads gleaning such meagrerewards, who despite drawing huge crowds hadno security, no chance of buying a house, wasmaybe stronger than it should have been All wehad to do was throw a game John, There is also the issue of non-payment of wages, acommon occurrence in both contemporary Asianleagues and British leagues of the s.

We have to pay for our cars. We haveto put food on the table for our families. And someonecomes up to us and offers us 10, MalaysianRinghit for one game. We have no choice. There were two systems— foreigners were very well paid. Domestic playerswere not particularly well paid LE, 4. There were similar conditions in the English leagues ofthe s. The meeting was in anauditorium at the White City, in west London. On thestage was a table with the organising committee.

At thebeginning of the meeting there was a generaldiscussion about the merits of industrial action, withthe leaders on stage urging for a strike. It went dead. Chairman, can Ianswer that man? According to Gregg and others P32 , most of theplayers in the room laughed in agreement with Banksand soon afterwards agreed to take a strike vote.

In the discussion about whether they shouldgo on strike, the young man thinks their referencegroup should be coal miners. It is the older player —Tommy Banks — who points out that the players haveprofessional skills and talents that the ordinary persondoes not have, and should be rewarded appropriately. The relative exploitation of the workers in football isthe second phenomenon that drives widespreadmatch-fixing. It is not that paying players more moneymeans that there will not be some players who willcontinue to accept bribes to underperform.

Given this caveat, the key dynamic that driveswidespread match-fixing in a league is the existence oftwo conditions — the relative deprivation of the playersand an illegal gambling market. Or the legal sportsmarket, which pays its actors poorly for doing theirjobs well; and the illegal gambling market, willing topay those same actors well for doing their jobs poorly.

Expectation of corruptionThere is a final point that needs to be made about theestablishment of high levels of match-fixing and that isabout the expectation of corruption. It is similar to thepoint that Pino Arlacchi makes in his exploration of thecontinuing power of the Sicilian mafia :Once they exceed a certain level… mafia murdersbegin to develop a powerful multiplier effect,which has devastating consequences for thestructure of society.

Corruption in footballa range of socio-psychological tendencies deeplyrooted in collective and individual life Arlacchi,, p. In quoting Arlacchi, I am not trying to contrast themoral severity of acts of murder with acts of corruptionlike match-fixing. Rather, I am trying to show thatthere are similar societal mechanisms at play in thesecases.

So when individuals incertain societies, be they inhabitants of Sicilianvillages or soccer players in a particular league, thinkthat deviant acts are actually the norm, they feel thatthey can join in. There is, however, an important distinction in thecase of match-fixing for both s England andcurrent-day Singapore. There is a widespread beliefthat societal corruption is low. However, there was,and is, chronic match-fixing in both these footballleagues.

So the expectation of corruption in this caseis not societal; rather it is the specific beliefs within anindustry that drive corruption. The specific belief thatdrives widespread corruption in football leagues is thatthere is official complicity. In other words, it is notenough that players and referees believe that otherplayers and referees are corrupt, it is that they believethe officials who run the sport are also corrupt.

Almostall interview subjects — including players, referees andsports officials — believed that both league and clubofficials were involved in gambling and fixing inMalaysia and Singapore. So the situation is that theplayers and referees are relatively badly paid, and theyalso perceive that their bosses are involved in corruptactivities and there is an alternative market — illegalgambling — that is willing to reward them.

Itshould be noted that their ranking on the CPI indexdoes not affect the presence of high levels of matchfixing. Singapore, ranked fifth in the CPI index, had asoccer league that suffers from high levels ofcorruption as do countries like Vietnam, which is places below it on the CPI listings. However, these football leagues did not collapsebecause of high corruption. The Malaysian-Singaporean league had a culture of match corruption,both gambling and arrangements, dating back at least30 years before its demise SO The owner, a provincialconstruction magnate, announced publicly that he wasretiring from football and going back to the morehonest world of the construction industry.

He madethe choice, he claimed, because football was toocorrupt Gittings, ; Shanghai Star, Here is the important point of this section. Anequilibrium level of corruption — where corruption isthe norm, rather than a deviant act — did not causethe failure of these leagues. The public puts their trust in the league todeliver an honest product.

In the case of match-fixing,once they know about corruption they lose their trustin the sport, they then withdraw their support and theleague collapses. Inglis , p. Szymanski and Kuypers , p. But like theowner of a meat factory who discovers the workershave produced unsafe meat, there is a strong incentivefor sports administrators not to publicise the deedoutside their inner circle. Who, after all, wants to eatunsafe food? I compiled a set of frequencystatistics to examine this see Figure 1. Thesample section was from FMDB-2, or the fixedmatches that we know were fixed with a high degreeof certainty.

There were seven categories of detectors:police investigation, media investigation, footballadministrators, spectators at a game, confession of aparticipant, confession of an outsider and bettingpatterns. There is, of course, a selection bias in theresults, since FMDB-2 consists only of games that arecertain to have been either fixed or attempted to havebeen fixed.

Most of that certainty comes from a legaldecision and, obviously, cases that were investigatedby the police are more likely to have come to court. Therefore, to reduce that bias by as much as possible,each case was examined to see how they began. Sofor example, the Moggi case — or games in Italy thatwere arranged by the internal corrupter Luciano Moggi— began when police were investigating a seeminglyunrelated Camorra gangster who was arrangingmatches with various players.

The police eventuallytook their findings to the Italian Football Association. The football officials did nothing for several months,until the police leaked the transcripts to journalists. After a number of high-profile stories, the ItalianFootball Association began a series of hearings thatfound Moggi guilty of match corruption Burke, ;La Stampa, However, in FMDB-2 the detectoris listed as a police investigation because it was theirwork that initiated the inquiry.

There may also be a selection bias in FMDB-2towards the media. If a participant wants to garnermaximum publicity to expose match corruption, theymay choose to go to the media. However, the detector, who is the veryleast likely to reveal match-fixing, with only one casein the entire database, was the football association. There are some legitimate constraints on footballassociations that keep them from revealing to thepublic corruption in their leagues, and this may partlyexplain the low rate of initiating public investigations.

A European football official stated that part of thereason for the low rate was legal:I must repeat there is a big difference betweenknowing something and doing something…Knowing and saying are two different things. Otherwise the lawyers would kill me! However, some leagues seem to go further thanmerely being bound for legal reasons, not to mentionmatch-fixing. They aggressively defend their productby actively sanctioning players or coaches whosuggest that any match corruption may be going on.

An example of this form of sanctioning occurred whenUEFA fined Manchester United player Eric Cantona50, euros for suggesting that a referee was takingbribes to fix European Championship League matches. UEFA has also on two occasionsthreatened to sue journalists who publicly raised theissue of fixed matches. This would not be particularlynoteworthy except that in both those cases it wasdiscovered later, by external law enforcement agencies,that the matches had been fixed.

A lawyer who tried to convict players for matchfixinghad a similar experience with a nationalEuropean football association:We [the law enforcement agencies] received nohelp from the Football Association. In fact quitethe opposite, they closed ranks. They do not wantto admit publicly that it [match-fixing] goes on LE9.

Another reason for lack of public discussion of matchfixingis that some football associations themselvesmay be corrupt organisations. This is not in any wayto suggest that all league officials of every leagueorganisation are corrupt. But we have already seen thealleged links between league officials and gamblingcorrupters in the Malaysian-Singapore and Chinesecases. And the same European official suggested thatsimilar situations existed in other European countries:Hill: How much trust do you have in the nationalfederations?

Officials: laughter We will be honest —sometimes they are the problem! In some casesthe leagues run the federations — and the leaguesare run by the clubs. So there is a conflict ofinterest right there. And we know that in some ofthe places there are irregularities in the leagues…In fact, unless you want to get killed, I wouldavoid Romania, Ukraine and Turkey. Verydangerous places — the mafia runs the place SO This allusion to organised crime involvement infootball associations is not new.

This is notto suggest in any way that all football associations areengaged in corruption, but it is important tounderstand that the governing institutions of footballcan be corrupted and that corruption will lead,inevitably, to a critical mass of corruption. The suppression of information about match-fixing,even by dishonest football associations, may have animportant, latent benefit.

If the associations publicisedthe existence of match-fixing, it might lead to morematch-fixing as the expected rate of corruption wentup. Suppression of information may make it bothunexpected and more difficult to reach corrupters. To counteract this suppression of information, for afootball league to collapse, its society must have areasonably free media, so that the public can becomeaware of the corruption. Presumably there are manycountries where corruption in sport is widespread, butthe press is unable to report this fact.

However,football in Asia provides an interesting industryspecificexception to general societal conditions. Both China andVietnam rank very low on their scale. However, inarticles about corruption in match-fixing in south-eastAsia, many writers made a point of drawing adistinction between the reporting on general societalcorruption and corruption in football.

This excerptabout Chinese football from The Guardian is typical:Its governing body, the CFA [Chinese FootballAssociation], is accused of complicity in matchfixing,bribe-taking and gambling. The final factor which leads to the collapse of footballleagues is one of an alternative market.

I wrote in thefirst section of this paper that illegal gambling marketsand relative deprivation were symbiotic partners increating large amounts of corruption in sports leagues. However, one mechanism by itself may not havebeen enough to create large-scale corruption.

Thesame phenomenon is seen in public awareness ofmatch-corruption. It is not just that the publicbecomes aware of high levels of corruption, it is thatthere is also a viable alternative market that ispresented to the public at approximately the sametime. There is a widegap in quality level between European and Asiangames, but if the local leagues had not been deeplycompromised by corruption, the new footballprogramming may not have had much effect SO There were a number of logistical and culturalchallenges that European football faced in Asia.

Forexample, most European games, if broadcast live,come on in Asia in the middle of the night. There arefew Asian players playing for European teams to givefans local heroes to support. European football alsomisses the sectarian rivalries which give football muchof its piquancy: there are no Singapore versusMalaysia or Shanghai versus Beijing games to drawpeople in.

However, because the reputation of thelocal leagues had become so tarnished, EPL becamewidely popular at the same time as the attendancesfor local matches declined so dramatically SO ,10; Blatter, ; J3, Wilson Li is typical of a large number of ordinaryAsian fans that I interviewed.

When we met, he had atattoo of the English football club Liverpool over hisheart. I know because he was bare-chested, waving aLiverpool flag and singing loudly in an emptySingaporean car park with 80 of his fellow fans Liverpool had just won a major championship. Maybe ten years ago, we used to driveup to Kuala Lumpur when Singapore played. It wasgreat; there would be 60, people in the stadium. But, now? There is too much bribery. The fans, theypay good money for the game, suddenly their teamloses , for nothing.

Waste of money! Li is not alone in either his enthusiasm for Europeanfootball or his dismay at the local leagues. In comparison, I watched a number of MalaysianPremier League matches and there were generallyfewer than 3, spectators in the stadium. Figure 2shows that this is a universal trend. Before Malaysian football was largely anamateur game played only between states in thecountry. In attendance at games began to riseas the new professional league, featuring teams fromacross Malaysia and Singapore, was founded.

The season was the peak for this league, however,and at the end of the season police discoveredwidespread match-fixing and attendance began todecline. The decline was exacerbated in whennew satellite television stations began to show liveEnglish Premier League matches. It is this introductionof new competition, which did not happen in Englandin the s, that ensured that the league in thatcountry did not collapse SO , Here then is a summary of the factors that lead to acollapsed league.

Leagues that have been destroyedhave had high levels of fixed matches, a high level ofpublic awareness of the corruption and theintroduction of a new market that provides the fanswith an alternative form of sports entertainment. Leagues, like the UK in the s, that have the firsttwo factors but not the introduction of new markets,have been able to prevent a collapse.

These factors feed into each other. Ifthe players were simply badly paid, there might besome match-fixing, but not a great deal. If there werean illegal gambling market and the players were wellpaid, again there might be some match-fixing but nota great deal. What really creates wide-scale corruptionis when the players are badly paid and another market— the illegal gambling market — is willing to rewardthose same players.

At the same time, many of thoseplayers perceive the officials who run the league asbeing involved in corrupt activities. In the second section, I examined how situations ofcorruption equilibrium, where corruption is the norm,do not lead to the collapse of football leagues. Rather,it is public exposure of such situations that lead totheir demise. I argue that because of the importanceof public perception, many football officials deliberatelysuppress reports of match corruption.

They do soeither by failing to report it or by actively sanctioningany actor, internal or external, who raises thepossibility of match corruption. However, wide publicawareness is not enough to cause the demise ofleagues: it is a symbiotic relationship with anothermarket that causes the demise. In this case, just asthe public was becoming more aware of corruption inthe local leagues, television stations beganbroadcasting a new product — European footballmatches.

Overall, the issue of corruption in sport is ofparamount importance to sponsors and marketers. If the public has begun toabandon a sport, the sponsors will be quick to follow. Declan Hill is an investigative journalist and academicspecialising in the study of organised crime andinternational issues. Agence France Presse , 12 October Vietnam football needsto be clean to grow.

Arlacchi, P. Martin Ryle. Bartholomew, J. Burke, J. Chang, J. Chong, E. Clough, B. Fernandez, J. Corruption in footballFernandez, J. Festinger, L. Ford, T. London: Stanley Paul. Gambetta, D. The Business of PrivateProtection. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

Princeton: Princeton University Press. Gidney, C. Retrieved from: www. Gittings, J. Granovetter, M. Gregg, H. London: Mainstream. Hardaker, A. London:Pelham Books. Hong Kong Standard , 11 February Football match- fixertells of sorrow for former teammates.

Imlach, G. London: Yellow Jersey. Inglis, S. London: Willow Books. Lambsdorff, J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Lupsha, P. Organized Crime: A Global Perspective, Merton, R. New York:The Free Press. New York: The Free Press. Moore, D. How to Win atFootball. Singapore: Landmark Books.

Preston, I. Price, S. Reuters , 26 June China accused of match fixing. Runciman, W. Shanghai Star , 3 July Black whistle fighter remainsindomitable in isolation. Shao Da , 31 October Chinese soccer on defense. Retrievedfrom: www. John, I. Harmondsworth, England: PenguinBooks. Vamplew, W. Van Rijckeghem, C. Watts, J. Whyte, W. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Xianfeng, C. Yallop, D. London: PoeticPublishing.

Yngwe, M. As thesecond of a three-phase research project, the paperconcludes with an indication of the final phaseresearch and implications of the findings so far forother professional sports. Increasingly since , with the introduction of newinsolvency legislation, it has been a regular feature ofbusiness activity in English football.

Amongmembers of Football League Division 1 and Division 2for the season, more than half havesuffered an insolvency event in recent years. Thispaper reports on the second phase of a majorresearch project into insolvency events in Englishfootball clubs, both professional and semi-professional. Through a review of the development andcommercialisation of football, the difficulty of applyingtheory developed for conventional profit-seekingsectors is identified, as is the need for a methodologythat incorporates both aggregative quantitativeapproaches and qualitative approaches that recognisethe uniqueness of each club.

The paper concludes with an indication of the linesof research to be undertaken in the third and finalphase of the wider research project, and an indicationof the implications of the research findings so far forother professional sports. IntroductionFacing financial difficulty is not a problem unique toEnglish football i. Association Football clubs. Thescale at which English football clubs now enterAdministration court protection from their creditors ,however, is now so great that it might almost be seenas a legitimate business tactic.

Although clubs have,since , faced points deduction for following thiscourse of action, there are increasing calls forautomatic relegation from the chairmen of some clubs,including Graham Turner of Hereford United and BarryHearn of Leyton Orient.

While this is not a universally held view, the fact thatit is promulgated is evidence that some see a scandalin the way that many English football clubs are run. Football clubs facing financial difficulties arecertainly not a new aspect of the game. After theFootball Association reluctantly allowedprofessionalisation in , and indeed for someyears before this, when illegal payments to supposedlyamateur players had become almost the norm in anumber of the clubs who would come to dominate theprofessional game, cashflow and profit and loss became an inevitable issue.

Most clubs changed theirlegal format to become limited companies because theresponsibility of maintaining payments to theiremployees, the now openly professional players, andto suppliers, placed the owners of the clubs in afinancially vulnerable position. In the early days of the professional game thechallenge to balance the books, let alone make aprofit, proved too much and some clubs were woundup, unable to continue as viable businesses. By thetime of the resumption of professional football at theend of the First World War, however, the professionalgame had shaken down to a reasonable level ofstability among the surviving clubs.

From that time until the mids, the threat ofinsolvency remained a rarity. When a financial crisisloomed, clubs tended either to negotiate deals withtheir creditors or, in the more extreme cases, toliquidate themselves voluntarily, only to reappearpromptly with a new or even the same owner 1. The introduction of the Insolvency Act, andmore recently the Enterprise Act, provided a lessdrastic option for any business seeking protection fromits creditors.

An Administrator could be appointed bythe courts with the brief to attempt to rescue thebusiness. While this might often still lead to a changein ownership, it allowed the business to continuetrading while the Administrator negotiated with thecreditors to find an acceptable level of debt settlement. Perhaps more than inany other business sector, survival of the business, i.

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